"The term “Systems Integrated Home” (SIH) was developed by the HGA based on the intensified, complex interdependence of various building systems required to meet set goals. SIH is the integration of multiple means and methods of design and construction to achieve maximum energy efficiencies. When the goal was set for net-zero energy it was not as simple as slapping photovoltaic panels on the roof. The architect threw the team a curve ball by deciding crystalline photo voltaic (PV) panels were not aesthetically pleasing to him. Instead he specified a building integrated photovoltaic (BIP) system known as thin-film. Electric output of PV varies significantly between manufacturers. Thin-film’s electric output is significantly less than Crystalline PV panel; the rule of thumb is that thin-film produces 50% less electricity. This caused the team to study reducing electrical consumption on a systems basis. Heating and cooling of the house is performed by a water source geothermal heat pump. The geothermal system uses a significant amount of electricity. The first course of action was to take the load off heating and cooling by super insulating the building envelope, installing energy efficient windows, doors and eliminating air infiltration. Installation of a variable speed well pump helped to reduce the amount of electricity to pump the water through the geothermal system.
An evacuated tube solar thermal system was installed to generate energy for domestic hot water production. It was thought that dumping excess hot water into the hot water coils of the air handlers in the winter would reduce the load further on the geothermal system. The lighting load was studied and it was found LED lighting produces the same light output but reduced electric consumption by 85% from incandescent lights. Fifty two LED recessed lights were installed. An integrated home energy monitoring system and other smart home technologies were installed to monitor energy usage and automate several systems."
"Technology and Information Management For Low-Carbon Building", Frank Dalene
American Institute of Physics, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy 4, 041402 (2012); 10.1063/1.3694120. For a free download click here: